Extrasolar Planets and Their Host Stars
von Braun et al
In order to understand the exoplanet, you need to understand its parent star. Astrophysical parameters of extrasolar planets are directly and indirectly dependent on the properties of their respective host stars. These host stars are very frequently the only visible component in the systems. This book describes our work in the field of characterization of exoplanet host stars using interferometry to determine angular diameters, trigonometric parallax to determine physical radii, and SED fitting to determine effective temperatures and luminosities. The interferometry data are based on our decade-long survey using the CHARA Array. We describe our methods and give an update on the status of the field, including a table with the astrophysical properties of all stars with high-precision interferometric diameters out to 150 pc (status Nov 2016). In addition, we elaborate in more detail on a number of particularly significant or important exoplanet systems, particularly with respect to (1) insights gained from transiting exoplanets, (2) the determination of system habitable zones, and (3) the discrepancy between directly determined and model-based stellar radii. Finally, we discuss current and future work including the calibration of semi-empirical methods based on interferometric data.
Friday, October 20, 2017
Ricci et al
We present multi-wavelength radio observations obtained with the VLA of the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young brown dwarf 2MASS J04442713+2512164 (2M0444) in the Taurus star forming region. 2M0444 is the brightest known brown dwarf disk at millimeter wavelengths, making this an ideal target to probe radio emission from a young brown dwarf. Thermal emission from dust in the disk is detected at 6.8 and 9.1 mm, whereas the 1.36 cm measured flux is dominated by ionized gas emission. We combine these data with previous observations at shorter sub-mm and mm wavelengths to test the predictions of dust evolution models in gas-rich disks after adapting their parameters to the case of 2M0444. These models show that the radial drift mechanism affecting solids in a gaseous environment has to be either completely made inefficient, or significantly slowed down by very strong gas pressure bumps in order to explain the presence of mm/cm-sized grains in the outer regions of the 2M0444 disk. We also discuss the possible mechanisms for the origin of the ionized gas emission detected at 1.36 cm. The inferred radio luminosity for this emission is in line with the relation between radio and bolometric luminosity valid for for more massive and luminous young stellar objects, and extrapolated down to the very low luminosity of the 2M0444 brown dwarf.
Author:WilliamsAbstract:The 2001 discovery of radio emission from ultra-cool dwarfs (UCDs), the very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types of ~M7 and later, revealed that these objects can generate and dissipate powerful magnetic fields. Radio observations provide unparalleled insight into UCD magnetism: detections extend to brown dwarfs with temperatures less than 1000 K, where no other observational probes are effective. The data reveal that UCDs can generate strong (kG) fields, sometimes with a stable dipolar structure; that they can produce and retain nonthermal plasmas with electron acceleration extending to MeV energies; and that they can drive auroral current systems resulting in significant atmospheric energy deposition and powerful, coherent radio bursts. Still to be understood are the underlying dynamo processes, the precise means by which particles are accelerated around these objects, the observed diversity of magnetic phenomenologies, and how all of these factors change as the mass of the central object approaches that of Jupiter. The answers to these questions are doubly important because UCDs are both potential exoplanet hosts, as in the TRAPPIST-1 system, and analogues of extrasolar giant planets themselves.
Thursday, October 19, 2017
HATS-43b, HATS-44b, HATS-45b, and HATS-46b: Four Short Period Transiting Giant Planets in the Neptune-Jupiter Mass Range
HATS-43b, HATS-44b, HATS-45b, and HATS-46b: Four Short Period Transiting Giant Planets in the Neptune-Jupiter Mass RangeAuthors:Brahm et alAbstract:We report the discovery of four short period extrasolar planets transiting moderately bright stars from photometric measurements of the HATSouth network coupled to additional spectroscopic and photometric follow-up observations. While the planet masses range from 0.26 to 0.90 MJ, the radii are all approximately a Jupiter radii, resulting in a wide range of bulk densities. The orbital period of the planets range from 2.7d to 4.7d, with HATS-43b having an orbit that appears to be marginally non-circular (e= 0.173±0.089). HATS-44 is notable for a high metallicity ([Fe/H]= 0.320±0.071). The host stars spectral types range from late F to early K, and all of them are moderately bright (13.3 less than V less than 14.4), allowing the execution of future detailed follow-up observations. HATS-43b and HATS-46b, with expected transmission signals of 2350 ppm and 1500 ppm, respectively, are particularly well suited targets for atmospheric characterisation via transmission spectroscopy.
Espinoza et al
We present the discovery of EPIC 220504338b, a dense hot-Jupiter discovered using photometry from Campaign 8 of the Kepler-2 (K2) mission and high-resolution spectroscopic follow up obtained with the FEROS spectrograph. The planet orbits a V = 13.68 solar analogue in a P=5.81760+0.00003−0.00003/+0.00003 day orbit, has a radius of 0.93+0.10−0.07RJ/0.93−0.07+0.10RJ and a mass of 1.29+0.13−0.14MJ/1.29−0.14+0.13MJ. With a density of 1.97+0.60−0.53/1.97−0.53+0.60 gr/cm3, the planet is among the densest systems known having masses below 2 MJ and Teq greater than 1000, and is just above the temperature limit at which inflation mechanisms are believed to start being important. Based on its mass and radius, we estimate that EPIC 220504338b should have a heavy element content on the order of ∼ 110 M⊕ or greater.
Phase Offsets and the Energy Budgets of Hot Jupiters
Schwartz et al
Thermal phase curves of short-period planets on circular orbits provide joint constraints on the fraction of incoming energy that is reflected (Bond albedo) and the fraction of absorbed energy radiated by the night hemisphere (heat recirculation efficiency). Many empirical studies of hot Jupiters have implicitly assumed that the dayside is the hottest hemisphere and the nightside is the coolest hemisphere. For a given eclipse depth and phase amplitude, an orbital lag between a planet's peak brightness and its eclipse (a phase offset) implies that planet's nightside emits greater flux. To quantify how phase offsets impact the energy budgets of short-period planets, we compile all infrared observations of the nine planets with multi-band eclipse depths and phase curves. Accounting for phase offsets shifts planets to lower Bond albedo and greater day--night heat transport, usually by ≲1σ. We find a somewhat higher nightside temperature for WASP-43b, but the planet still exhibits an unusually high day-night temperature contrast compared to other planets of the same irradiation temperature. For WASP-12b, our more accurate analysis suggests that the planet has a slightly lower Bond albedo, and much greater day-night recirculation efficiency than previously reported. The planet no longer fits the trend of increasing day-night temperature contrast with greater instellation.
Wednesday, October 18, 2017
No large population of unbound or wide-orbit Jupiter-mass planets
Mroz et al
Gravitational microlensing is the only method capable of exploring the entire population of free-floating planets down to Mars-mass objects, because the microlensing signal does not depend on the brightness of the lensing object. A characteristic timescale of microlensing events depends on the mass of the lens: the less massive the lens, the shorter the microlensing event. A previous analysis of 474 microlensing events found an excess of very short events (1-2 days) - more than known stellar populations would suggest - indicating the existence of a large population of unbound or wide-orbit Jupiter-mass planets (reported to be almost twice as common as main-sequence stars). These results, however, do not match predictions of planet formation theories and are in conflict with surveys of young clusters. Here we report the analysis of a six times larger sample of microlensing events discovered during the years 2010-2015. Although our survey has very high sensitivity (detection efficiency) to short-timescale (1--2 days) microlensing events, we found no excess of events with timescales in this range, with a 95% upper limit on the frequency of Jupiter-mass free-floating or wide-orbit planets of 0.25 planet per main-sequence star. We detected a few possible ultrashort-timescale events (with timescales of less than 0.5 day), which may indicate the existence of Earth- and super-Earth-mass free-floating planets, as predicted by planet-formation theories