## Friday, September 30, 2016

### A Survey for H-alpha Emission From Late L and T Class Brown Dwarfs

A Survey for H-alpha Emission from Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs

Authors:

Pineda et al

Abstract:

Recently, studies of brown dwarfs have demonstrated that they possess strong magnetic fields and have the potential to produce radio and optical auroral emissions powered by magnetospheric currents. This emission provides the only window on magnetic fields in the coolest brown dwarfs and identifying additional benchmark objects is key to constraining dynamo theory in this regime. To this end, we conducted a new red optical (6300 - 9700 Angstrom) survey with the Keck telescopes looking for H-alpha emission from a sample of late L dwarfs and T dwarfs. Our survey gathered optical spectra for 29 targets, 18 of which did not have previous optical spectra in the literature, greatly expanding the number of moderate resolution (R~2000) spectra available at these spectral types. Combining our sample with previous surveys, we confirm an H-alpha detection rate of 9.2 (+3.5/-2.1) % for L and T dwarfs in the optical spectral range of L4 - T8. This detection rate is consistent with the recently measured detection rate for auroral radio emission from Kao et al. (2016), suggesting that geometrical selection effects due to the beaming of the radio emission are small or absent. We also provide the first detection of H-alpha emission from 2MASS 0036+1821, previously notable as the only electron cyclotron maser radio source without a confirmed detection of H-alpha emission. Finally, we also establish optical standards for spectral types T3 and T4, filling in the previous gap between T2 and T5.

### WISEP J060738.65+242953.4: A Nearby. Pole-On L8 Brown Dwarf with Radio Emission

Authors:

Gizis et al

Abstract:

We present a simultaneous, multi-wavelength campaign targeting the nearby (7.2 pc) L8/L9 (optical/near-infrared) dwarf WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 in the mid-infrared, radio, and optical. Spitzer Space Telescope observations show no variability at the 0.2% level over 10 hours each in the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands. Kepler K2 monitoring over 36 days in Campaign 0 rules out stable periodic signals in the optical with amplitudes great than 1.5% and periods between 1.5 hours and 2 days. Non-simultaneous Gemini optical spectroscopy detects lithium, constraining this L dwarf to be less than ~2 Gyr old, but no Balmer emission is observed. The low measured projected rotation velocity (v sin i < 6 km/s) and lack of variability are very unusual compared to other brown dwarfs, and we argue that this substellar object is likely viewed pole-on. We detect quiescent (non-bursting) radio emission with the VLA. Amongst radio detected L and T dwarfs, it has the lowest observed L_nu and the lowest v sin i. We discuss the implications of a pole-on detection for various proposed radio emission scenarios.

### Brown dwarf disks in Ophiuchus

Brown dwarf disks with ALMA: evidence for truncated dust disks in Ophiuchus

Authors:

Testi et al

Abstract:

The study of the properties of disks around young brown dwarfs can provide important clues on the formation of these very low-mass objects and on the possibility of forming planetary systems around them. The presence of warm dusty disks around brown dwarfs is well known, based on near- and mid-infrared studies. High angular resolution observations of the cold outer disk are limited; we used ALMA to attempt a first survey of young brown dwarfs in the ρ-Oph star-forming region. All 17 young brown dwarfs in our sample were observed at 890 μm in the continuum at ∼0.′′5 angular resolution. The sensitivity of our observations was chosen to detect ∼0.5 M⊕ of dust. We detect continuum emission in 11 disks (∼65\%\ of the total), and the estimated mass of dust in the detected disks ranges from ∼0.5 to ∼6 M⊕. These disk masses imply that planet formation around brown dwarfs may be relatively rare and that the supra-Jupiter mass companions found around some brown dwarfs are probably the result of a binary system formation. We find evidence that the two brightest disks in ρ-Oph have sharp outer edges at R<~25 AU, in contrast to disks around Taurus brown dwarfs. This difference may suggest that the different environment in ρ-Oph may lead to significant differences in disk properties. A comparison of the Mdisk/M∗ ratio for brown dwarf and solar-mass systems also shows a possible deficit of mass in brown dwarfs, which could support the evidence for dynamical truncation of disks in the substellar regime. These findings are still tentative and need to be put on firmer grounds by studying the gaseous disks around brown dwarfs and by performing a more systematic and unbiased survey of the disk population around the more massive stars.

## Thursday, September 29, 2016

### EPIC 211351816.01: A (Re-?)Inflated Planet Orbiting a Red Giant Star

Authors:

Grunblatt et al

Abstract:

Giant planets with high incident fluxes have been observed with radii larger than thermal evolution models would allow. Although these inflated planets have been known for almost two decades, it is unclear whether their inflation is caused by deposition of energy from the host star, or inhibited cooling of the planet. These processes can be distinguished if the planet becomes highly irradiated only when the host star evolves onto the red giant branch. We report the discovery of EPIC 211351816.01, a 1.27 +/- 0.09 RJ, 1.10 +/- 0.11 MJ planet orbiting a 4.20 +/- 0.14 Rsun, 1.16 +/- 0.12 Msun red giant star with an orbital period of 8.4 days. We precisely constrained stellar and planetary parameters by combining asteroseismology, spectroscopy, and granulation noise modeling along with transit and radial velocity measurements. Our calculations suggest the incident flux on this planet was ~200 +/- 100 times the flux on Earth while the star was on the main sequence, comparable to the suggested threshold flux for planet inflation. This suggests the planet was significantly less inflated in the past, and its current measured planet radius is inconsistent with delayed cooling since formation. Thus, this system provides the first clear evidence that planets are inflated directly from a process dependent on the incident stellar radiation rather than by delayed loss of heat from formation. Further studies of planets around red giant branch stars will confirm or contradict this inflation hypothesis, and may reveal a new class of re-inflated planets.

final paper with the exoplanet renamed K2-97b.

### A hot Jupiter orbiting a 2-Myr-old solar-mass T Tauri star

Authors:

Donati et al

Abstract:

Hot Jupiters are giant Jupiter-like exoplanets that orbit 100x closer to their host stars than Jupiter does to the Sun. These planets presumably form in the outer part of the primordial disc from which both the central star and surrounding planets are born, then migrate inwards and yet avoid falling into their host star. It is however unclear whether this occurs early in the lives of hot Jupiters, when still embedded within protoplanetary discs, or later, once multiple planets are formed and interact. Although numerous hot Jupiters were detected around mature Sun-like stars, their existence has not yet been firmly demonstrated for young stars, whose magnetic activity is so intense that it overshadows the radial velocity signal that close-in giant planets can induce. Here we show that hot Jupiters around young stars can be revealed from extended sets of high-resolution spectra. Once filtered-out from the activity, radial velocities of V830 Tau derived from new data collected in late 2015 exhibit a sine wave of period 4.93 d and semi-amplitude 75 m/ s, detected with a false alarm probability

### Hunting for hot Jupiters in Open Stellar Clusters

Authors:

Bailey et al

Abstract:

We present a multiplexed high-resolution (R ~ 50,000 median) spectroscopic survey designed to detect exoplanet candidates in two southern star clusters (NGC 2516 and NGC 2422) using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) on the Magellan/Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. With 128 available fibers in our observing mode, we are able to target every star in the core half-degree of each cluster that could plausibly be a solar-analog member. Our template-based spectral fits provide precise measurements of fundamental stellar properties—T eff (±30 K), [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] (±0.02 dex), and ${v}_{r}\mathrm{sin}(i)$ (±0.3 km s−1)—and radial velocities (RVs) by using telluric absorption features from 7160 to 7290 Å as a wavelength reference for 251 mid-F to mid-K stars (126 in NGC 2516 and 125 in NGC 2422) that comprise our survey. In each cluster, we have obtained ~10–12 epochs of our targets. Using repeat observations of an RV standard star, we show our approach can attain a single-epoch velocity precision of 25–60 m s−1 over a broad range of signal-to-noise ratios throughout our observational baseline of 1.1 years. Our technique is suitable for nonrapidly rotating stars cooler than mid-F. In this paper, we describe our observational sample and analysis methodology and present a detailed study of the attainable precision and measurement capabilities of our approach. Subsequent papers will provide results for stars observed in the target clusters, analyze our data set of RV time series for stellar jitter and stellar and substellar companions, and consider the implications of our findings on the clusters themselves.

## Wednesday, September 28, 2016

### DETECTING PLANET PAIRS IN MEAN MOTION RESONANCES VIA THE ASTROMETRY METHOD

Authors:

Wu et al

Abstract:

Gaia is leading us into a new era with a high astrometry precision of ~10 μas. Under such precision, astrometry can play an important role in detecting and characterizing exoplanets. In particular, we can identify planet pairs in mean motion resonances (MMRs), which constrain the formation and evolution of planetary systems. In accordance with observations, we consider two-Jupiter or two-super-Earth systems in 1:2, 2:3, and 3:4 MMRs. Our simulations show that the false alarm probabilities (FAPs) of a third planet are extremely small, while the two real planets can be fitted well with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)$\;\gt \;3$. The probability of reconstructing a resonant system is related to the eccentricities and the resonance intensity. Generally, when the S/N $\geqslant \;10$, if the eccentricities of both planets are larger than 0.01 and the resonance is quite strong, the probability of reconstructing the planet pair in MMRs is $\geqslant \;80 \%$. Jupiter pairs in MMRs are reconstructed more easily than super-Earth pairs with similar S/N when we consider dynamical stability. FAPs are also calculated when we detect planet pairs in or near MMRs. The FAPs for 1:2 MMRs are the largest, i.e., FAP $\gt 15 \%$ when S/N $\leqslant \;10$. Extrapolating from the Kepler planet pairs near MMRs and assuming a S/N ~ 3, we discover and reconstruct a few tens of Jupiter pairs and hundreds of super-Earth pairs in 2:3 and 1:2 MMRs within 30 pc. We also compare the differences between even and uneven data cadence and find that planets are better measured with more uniform phase coverage.

### HIP 41378: an F Class Star Hosting 5 Transiting Exoplanets

Authors:

Vanderburg et al

Abstract:

The Kepler mission has revealed a great diversity of planetary systems and architectures, but most of the planets discovered by Kepler orbit faint stars. Using new data from the K2 mission, we present the discovery of a five planet system transiting a bright (V = 8.9, K = 7.7) star called HIP 41378. HIP 41378 is a slightly metal-poor late F-type star with moderate rotation (v sin(i) = 7 km/s) and lies at a distance of 116 +/- 18 from Earth. We find that HIP 41378 hosts two sub-Neptune sized planets orbiting 3.5% outside a 2:1 period commensurability in 15.6 and 31.7 day orbits. In addition, we detect three planets which each transit once during the 75 days spanned by K2 observations. One planet is Neptune sized in a likely ~160 day orbit, one is sub-Saturn sized likely in a ~130 day orbit, and one is a Jupiter sized planet in a likely ~1 year orbit. We show that these estimates for the orbital periods can be made more precise by taking into account dynamical stability considerations. We also calculate the distribution of stellar reflex velocities expected for this system, and show that it provides a good target for future radial velocity observations. If a precise orbital period can be determined for the outer Jovian planet through future observations, it will be an excellent candidate for follow-up transit observations to study its atmosphere and measure its oblateness.

### Do Wide Orbit Gas Giants Produce Scattered Exoplanets?

Authors:

Bryan et al

Abstract:

We have conducted an angular differential imaging survey with NIRC2 at Keck in search of close-in substellar companions to a sample of seven systems with confirmed planetary-mass companions (PMCs) on wide orbits (>50 AU). These wide-separation PMCs pose significant challenges to all three possible formation mechanisms: core accretion plus scattering, disk instability, and turbulent fragmentation. We explore the possibility that these companions formed closer in and were scattered out to their present-day locations by searching for other massive bodies at smaller separations. The typical sensitivity for this survey is \Delta K ~ 12.5 at 1". We identify eight candidate companions, whose masses would reach as low as one Jupiter mass if gravitationally bound. From our multi-epoch astrometry we determine that seven of these are conclusively background objects, while the eighth near DH Tau is ambiguous and requires additional monitoring. We rule out the presence of >7 MJup bodies in these systems down to 15 - 50 AU that could be responsible for scattering. This result combined with the totality of evidence suggests that dynamical scattering is unlikely to have produced this population of PMCs. We detect orbital motion from the companions ROXs 42B b and ROXs 12 b, and from this determine 95% upper limits on the companions' eccentricities of 0.58 and 0.83 respectively. Finally, we find that the 95% upper limit on the occurrence rate of additional planets with masses between 5 - 15 MJup outside of 40 AU in systems with PMCs is 54%.

## Tuesday, September 27, 2016

### Can Pebble Accretion Planetary Formation Explain the Diversity of Systems Observed?

Author:

Chambers

Abstract:

This paper examines the standard model of planet formation, including pebble accretion, using numerical simulations. Planetary embryos that are large enough to become giant planets do not form beyond the ice line within a typical disk lifetime unless icy pebbles stick at higher speeds than in experiments using rocky pebbles. Systems like the solar system (small inner planets and giant outer planets) can form if icy pebbles are stickier than rocky pebbles, and if the planetesimal formation efficiency increases with pebble size, which prevents the formation of massive terrestrial planets. Growth beyond the ice line is dominated by pebble accretion. Most growth occurs early, when the surface density of the pebbles is high due to inward drift of the pebbles from the outer disk. Growth is much slower after the outer disk is depleted. The outcome is sensitive to the disk radius and turbulence level, which control the lifetime and maximum size of pebbles. The outcome is sensitive to the size of the largest planetesimals because there is a threshold mass for the onset of pebble accretion. The planetesimal formation rate is unimportant, provided that some large planetesimals form while the pebbles remain abundant. Two outcomes are seen, depending on whether pebble accretion begins while the pebbles are still abundant. Either multiple gas-giant planets form beyond the ice line, small planets form close to the star, and a Kuiper-belt-like disk of bodies is scattered outward by the giant planets; or no giants form and the bodies remain an Earth-mass or smaller.

### The Influence of Protoplanetary Disk Composition on Exoplanetary Atmospheres

Authors:

Cridland et al

Abstract:

We present a model of the early chemical composition and elemental abundances of planetary atmospheres based on the cumulative gaseous chemical species that are accreted onto planets forming by core accretion from evolving protoplanetary disks. The astrochemistry of the host disk is computed using an ionization driven, non-equilibrium chemistry network within viscously evolving disk models. We accrete gas giant planets whose orbital evolution is controlled by planet traps using the standard core accretion model and track the chemical composition of the material that is accreted onto the protoplanet. We choose a fiducial disk model and evolve planets in 3 traps - water ice line, dead zone and heat transition. For a disk with a lifetime of 4.1 Myr we produce two Hot Jupiters (M = 1.43, 2.67 MJupiter, r = 0.15, 0.11 AU) in the heat transition and ice line trap and one failed core (M = 0.003 MJupiter, r =3.7 AU) in the dead zone. These planets are found with mixing ratios for CO and H2O of 1.99×10−4, 5.0×10−4 respectively for both Hot Jupiters. Additionally for these planets we find CO2 and CH4, with mixing ratios of 1.8×10−6→9.8×10−10 and 1.1×10−8→2.3×10−10 respectively. These ranges correspond well with the mixing ratio ranges that have been inferred through the detection of emission spectra from Hot Jupiters by multiple authors. We compute a carbon-to-oxygen ratio of 0.227 for the ice line planet and 0.279 for the heat transition planet. These planets accreted their gas inside the ice line, hence the sub-solar C/O.

### Many Magma Exoplanets may Have Surface Compositions That Change Over Time

Atmosphere-interior exchange on hot rocky exoplanets

Authors:

Kite et al

Abstract:

We provide estimates of atmospheric pressure and surface composition on short-period rocky exoplanets with dayside magma pools and silicate vapor atmospheres. Atmospheric pressure tends toward vapor-pressure equilibrium with surface magma, and magma-surface composition is set by the competing effects of fractional vaporization and surface-interior exchange. We use basic models to show how surface-interior exchange is controlled by the planet's temperature, mass, and initial composition. We assume that mantle rock undergoes bulk melting to form the magma pool, and that winds flow radially away from the substellar point. With these assumptions, we find that: (1) atmosphere-interior exchange is fast when the planet's bulk-silicate FeO concentration is low, and slow when FeO concentration is high; (2) magma pools are compositionally well-mixed for substellar temperatures ≲ 2400 K, but compositionally variegated and rapidly variable for substellar temperatures ≳ 2400 K; (3) currents within the magma pool tend to cool the top of the solid mantle ("tectonic refrigeration"); (4) contrary to earlier work, many magma planets have time-variable surface compositions.

## Monday, September 26, 2016

### Families of Plausible Solutions to the Puzzle of Boyajian's Star

Authors:

Wright et al

Abstract:

Good explanations for the unusual light curve of Boyajian's Star have been hard to find. Recent results by Montet & Simon lend strength and plausibility to the conclusion of Schaefer that in addition to short-term dimmings, the star also experiences large, secular decreases in brightness on decadal timescales. This, combined with a lack of long-wavelength excess in the star's spectral energy distribution, strongly constrains scenarios involving circumstellar material, including hypotheses invoking a spherical cloud of artifacts. We show that the timings of the deepest dimmings appear consistent with being randomly distributed, and that the star's reddening and narrow sodium absorption is consistent with the total, long-term dimming observed. Following Montet & Simon's encouragement to generate alternative hypotheses, we attempt to circumscribe the space of possible explanations with a range of plausibilities, including: a cloud in the outer solar system, structure in the ISM, natural and artificial material orbiting Boyajian's Star, an intervening object with a large disk, and variations in Boyajian's Star itself. We find the ISM and intervening disk models more plausible than the other natural models.

### Improving the Drake Equation

Quantifying the origins of life on a planetary scale

Authors:

Scharf et al

Abstract:

A simple, heuristic formula with parallels to the Drake Equation is introduced to help focus discussion on open questions for the origins of life in a planetary context. This approach indicates a number of areas where quantitative progress can be made on parameter estimation for determining origins of life probabilities, based on constraints from Bayesian approaches. We discuss a variety of “microscale” factors and their role in determining “macroscale” abiogenesis probabilities on suitable planets. We also propose that impact ejecta exchange between planets with parallel chemistries and chemical evolution could in principle amplify the development of molecular complexity and abiogenesis probabilities. This amplification could be very significant, and both bias our conclusions about abiogenesis probabilities based on the Earth and provide a major source of variance in the probability of life arising in planetary systems. We use our heuristic formula to suggest a number of observational routes for improving constraints on origins of life probabilities.

### Alien Mindscapes—A Perspective on the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

Author:

Cabrol

Abstract:

Advances in planetary and space sciences, astrobiology, and life and cognitive sciences, combined with developments in communication theory, bioneural computing, machine learning, and big data analysis, create new opportunities to explore the probabilistic nature of alien life. Brought together in a multidisciplinary approach, they have the potential to support an integrated and expanded Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI1), a search that includes looking for life as we do not know it. This approach will augment the odds of detecting a signal by broadening our understanding of the evolutionary and systemic components in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI), provide more targets for radio and optical SETI, and identify new ways of decoding and coding messages using universal markers.

### The Likelihood of Life on the Cosmological Scale

Relative Likelihood for Life as a Function of Cosmic Time

Authors:

Loeb et al

Abstract:

Is life most likely to emerge at the present cosmic time near a star like the Sun? We address this question by calculating the relative formation probability per unit time of habitable Earth-like planets within a fixed comoving volume of the Universe, dP(t)/dt, starting from the first stars and continuing to the distant cosmic future. We conservatively restrict our attention to the context of "life as we know it" and the standard cosmological model, LCDM. We find that unless habitability around low mass stars is suppressed, life is most likely to exist near 0.1 solar-mass stars ten trillion years from now. Spectroscopic searches for biosignatures in the atmospheres of transiting Earth-mass planets around low mass stars will determine whether present-day life is indeed premature or typical from a cosmic perspective.

## Sunday, September 25, 2016

### Spectral Properties of Cool Stars: Extended Abundance Analysis of 1626 Planet Search Stars

Authors:

Brewer et al

Abstract:

We present a catalog of uniformly determined stellar properties and abundances for 1626 F, G, and K stars using an automated spectral synthesis modeling procedure. All stars were observed using the HIRES spectrograph at Keck Observatory. Our procedure used a single line list to fit model spectra to observations of all stars to determine effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, projected rotational velocity, and the abundances of 15 elements (C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, & Y). Sixty percent of the sample had Hipparcos parallaxes and V-band photometry which we combined with the spectroscopic results to obtain mass, radius, and luminosity. Additionally, we used the luminosity, effective temperature, metallicity and alpha-element enhancement to interpolate in the Yonsei-Yale isochrones to derive mass, radius, gravity, and age ranges for those stars. Finally, we determined new relations between effective temperature and macroturbulence for dwarfs and subgiants. Our analysis achieved precisions of 25 K in Teff , 0.01 dex in [M/H], 0.028 dex for log g and 0.5 km/s in v sin ibased on multiple observations of the same stars. The abundance results were similarly precise, between 0.01 and - 0.04 dex, though trends with respect to Teff remained for which we derived empirical corrections. The trends, though small, were much larger than our uncertainties and are shared with published abundances. We show that changing our model atmosphere grid accounts for most of the trend in [M/H] between 5000 K and 5500 K indicating a possible problem with the atmosphere models or opacities.

### Could Fast Rotating Red Giants be a Sign of Having Eaten an Exoplanet?

Authors:

Privitera et al

Abstract:

Context.

Fast rotating red giants in the upper part of the red giant branch have surface velocities that cannot be explained by single star evolution.

Aims.

We check whether tides between a star and a planet followed by planet engulfment can indeed accelerate the surface rotation of red giants for a sufficient long time in order to produce these fast rotating red giants.

Methods.

Using rotating stellar models, accounting for the redistribution of the angular momentum inside the star by different transport mechanisms, for the exchanges of angular momentum between the planet orbit and the star before the engulfment and for the deposition of angular momentum inside the star at the engulfment, we study how the surface rotation velocity at the stellar surface evolves.

Results.

We show that the surface velocities reached at the end of the orbital decay due to tidal forces and planet engulfment can be similar to values observed for fast rotating red giants. This surface velocity then decreases when the star evolves along the red giant branch but at a sufficiently slow pace for allowing stars to be detected with such a high velocity. More quantitatively, star-planet interaction can produce a rapid acceleration of the surface of the star, above values equal to 8 km s−1, for periods lasting up to more than 30% the red giant branch phase. The changes of the surface carbon isotopic ratios produced by the dilution of the planetary material into the convective envelope is quite modest. Much more important might be the increase of the lithium abundance due to this effect. However lithium may be affected by many different, still uncertain, processes.

Conclusions.

The acceleration of the stellar surface to rotation velocities above limits that depend on the surface gravity does appear at the moment as the clearest signature of a star-planet interaction.

### Epsilon Eridani Gets a Closer Look

A combined spectroscopic and photometric stellar activity study of Epsilon Eridani

Authors:

Giguere et al

Abstract:

We present simultaneous ground-based radial velocity (RV) measurements and space-based photometric measurements of the young and active K dwarf Epsilon Eridani. These measurements provide a data set for exploring methods of identifying and ultimately distinguishing stellar photospheric velocities from Keplerian motion. We compare three methods we have used in exploring this data set: Dalmatian, an MCMC spot modeling code that fits photometric and RV measurements simultaneously; the FF′ method, which uses photometric measurements to predict the stellar activity signal in simultaneous RV measurements; and Hα analysis. We show that our Hα measurements are strongly correlated with photometry from the Microvariability and Oscillations of STars (MOST) instrument, which led to a promising new method based solely on the spectroscopic observations. This new method, which we refer to as the HH′ method, uses Hα measurements as input into the FF′ model. While the Dalmatian spot modeling analysis and the FF′ method with MOST space-based photometry are currently more robust, the HH′ method only makes use of one of the thousands of stellar lines in the visible spectrum. By leveraging additional spectral activity indicators, we believe the HH′ method may prove quite useful in disentangling stellar signals.

## Saturday, September 24, 2016

### Detection of Ice in HD 142527's Disk

Authors:

Min et al

Abstract:

The presence or absence of ice in protoplanetary disks is of great importance for the formation of planets. By enhancing the solid surface density and increasing the sticking efficiency, ice catalyzes the rapid formation of planetesimals and decreases the time scale for giant planet core accretion. Aims: In this paper we analyse the composition of the outer disk around the Herbig star HD~142527. We focus on the composition of the water ice, but also analyse the abundances of previously proposed minerals. Methods: We present new Herschel far infrared spectra and a re-reduction of archival data from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). We model the disk using full 3D radiative transfer to obtain the disk structure. Also, we use an optically thin analysis of the outer disk spectrum to obtain firm constraints on the composition of the dust component. Results: The water ice in the disk around HD~142527 contains a large reservoir of crystalline water ice. We determine the local abundance of water ice in the outer disk (i.e. beyond 130\,AU). The re-reduced ISO spectrum differs significantly from that previously published, but matches the new Herschel spectrum at their common wavelength range. In particular, we do not detect any significant contribution from carbonates or hydrous silicates, in contrast to earlier claims. Conclusions: The amount of water ice detected in the outer disk requires ∼80\% of the oxygen atoms. This is comparable to the water ice abundance in the outer solar system, in comets and in dense interstellar clouds. The water ice is highly crystalline while the temperatures where we detect it are too low to crystallize the water on relevant time scales. We discuss the implications of this finding.

### DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXOPLANETS USING PROJECTIONS ON KARHUNEN–LOEVE EIGENIMAGES: FORWARD MODELING

DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXOPLANETS USING PROJECTIONS ON KARHUNEN–LOEVE EIGENIMAGES: FORWARD MODELING

Author:

Pueyo

Abstract:

A new class of high-contrast image analysis algorithms that empirically fit and subtract systematic noise has lead to recent discoveries of faint exoplanet/substellar companions and scattered light images of circumstellar disks. These methods are extremely efficient at enhancing the detectability of a faint astrophysical signal, but they generally create systematic biases in their observed properties. This paper provides a general solution for this outstanding problem. We present an analytical derivation of a linear expansion that captures the impact of astrophysical over-subtraction or self-subtraction in current image analysis techniques. We examine the general case for which the reference images of the astrophysical scene move azimuthally and/or radially across the field of view as a result of the observation strategy. Our new method is based on perturbing the covariance matrix underlying any least-squares speckles problem, and propagating this perturbation through the data analysis algorithm. Most of the work in this paper is presented in the Principal Component Analysis framework, but it can be easily generalized to methods relying on the linear combination of images (instead of eigenmodes). Based on this linear expansion, which is obtained in the most general case, we then demonstrate practical applications of this new algorithm. We first consider the spectral extraction of faint point sources in IFS data and illustrate, using public Gemini Planet Imager commissioning data, that our novel perturbation-based Forward Modeling, which we named Karhunen Loeve Image Processing (KLIP-FM), can indeed alleviate algorithmic biases. We then apply KLIP-FM to the detection of point sources and show how it decreases the rate of false negatives while keeping the rate of false positives unchanged when compared to classical KLIP. This can potentially have important consequences on the design of follow-up strategies of ongoing direct imaging surveys.

### Towards detecting methanol emission in low-mass protoplanetary discs with ALMA

Authors:

Parfenov et al

Abstract:

The understanding of organic content of protoplanetary discs is one of the main goals of the planet formation studies. As an attempt to guide the observational searches for weak lines of complex species in discs, we modelled the (sub-)millimetre spectrum of gaseous methanol (CH3OH), one of the simplest organic molecules, in the representative T Tauri system. We used 1+1D disc physical model coupled to the gas-grain ALCHEMIC chemical model with and without 2D-turbulent mixing. The computed CH3OH abundances along with the CH3OH scheme of energy levels of ground and excited torsional states were used to produce model spectra obtained with the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) 3D line radiative transfer code LIME. We found that the modelled non-LTE intensities of the CH3OH lines can be lower by factor of >10--100 than those calculated under assumption of LTE. Though population inversion occurs in the model calculations for many (sub-)millimetre transitions, it does not lead to the strong maser amplification and noticeably high line intensities. We identify the strongest CH3OH (sub-)millimetre lines that could be searched for with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in nearby discs. The two best candidates are the CH3OH 50−40 A+ (241.791 GHz) and 5−1−4−1 E (241.767 GHz) lines, which could possibly be detected with the ∼5σ signal-to-noise ratio after ∼3 hours of integration with the full ALMA array.

## Friday, September 23, 2016

### Tidal evolution of CoRoT massive planets and brown dwarfs and of their host stars

Tidal evolution of CoRoT massive planets and brown dwarfs and of their host stars

Author:

Ferraz-Mello

Abstract:

Aims:

Revisit and improvement of the main results obtained in the study of the tidal evolution of several massive CoRoT planets and brown dwarfs and of the rotation of their host stars.

Methods:

Simulations of the past and future evolution of the orbital and rotational elements of the systems under the joint action of the tidal torques and the braking due to the stellar wind.

Results:

Presentation of several paradigms and significant examples of tidal evolution in extrasolar planetary systems. It is shown that the high quality of the photometric and spectrographic observations of the CoRoT objects allow for a precise study of their past and future evolution and to estimate the tidal parameters ruling the dissipation in the systems.

### EPIC201702477b: A Long Period Transiting Brown Dwarf from K2

Authors:

Bayliss et al

Abstract:

We report the discovery of EPIC201702477b, a transiting brown dwarf in a long period (40.73691 +/- 0.00037 day) and eccentric (e=0.2281 +/- 0.0026) orbit. This system was initially reported as a planetary candidate based on two transit events seen in K2 Campaign 1 photometry and later validated as an exoplanet. We confirm the transit and refine the ephemeris with two subsequent ground-based detections of the transit using the LCOGT 1m telescope network. We rule out any transit timing variations above the level of 30s. Using high precision radial velocity measurements from HARPS and SOPHIE we identify the transiting companion as a brown dwarf with a mass, radius, and bulk density of 66.9 +/- 1.7 MJ, 0.757 +/- 0.065 RJ, and 191+/-51 g.cm−3 respectively. EPIC201702477b is the smallest radius brown dwarf yet discovered, with a mass just below the H-burning limit. It has the highest density of any planet, substellar mass object or main-sequence star discovered so far. We find evidence in the set of known transiting brown dwarfs for two populations of objects - high mass brown dwarfs and low mass brown dwarfs. The higher-mass population have radii in very close agreement to theoretical models, and show a lower-mass limit around 60 MJ. This may be the signature of mass-dependent ejection of systems during the formation process.

### 2MASS J16042165-2130284 Probably has a Brown Dwarf & Several Gas Giants

Authors:

Wilson Canovas et al

Abstract:

2MASS J16042165-2130284 (hereafter J1604) is a pre-transitional disk with different gap sizes in the mm-sized (~79 au) and μm-sized (~63 au) dust particles. The 12CO emission shows a ~30 au cavity. This radial structure suggests that giant planets are interacting with the disk.
We aim to observationally constrain the masses and location of plausible giant planets inside the cavity of J1604, and compare our results with previous predictions from hydrodynamical models describing planet-disk interactions.

We observed J1604 with VLT/SPHERE in pupil-stabilized mode, obtaining YJHK- band images. The dataset was processed exploiting the ADI technique with dedicated algorithms to maximize the sensitivity of our observations.

Our observations reach an exquisite contrast of ΔK,H 12 mag from 0.15" to 0.80" ( 22 to 115 au), but no planet candidate is detected. The disk is directly imaged in scattered light in all the near infrared bands (from Y to K). The disk has a red color, which indicates that the dust particles in the disk surface are mainly ≳0.3μm-sized grains. We confirm the sharp dip/decrement in scattered light in agreement with previous observations. Comparing our images with a simple radiative transfer model we argue that the nearest side of the disk is most likely the southern side.

Our observations represent a gain of roughly ΔK=6 in contrast when compared to previous observations of this object. The work detailed here represents the deepest search yet for companions of J1604 which are potentially carving its disk structure. We reach a mass sensitivity of 2−3MJup across the disk cavity according to a hot start scenario. We propose that a brown dwarf orbiting inside the inner ~15 au and additional Jovian planets at larger radii could account for the observed properties of J1604 while explaining our non-detection.

## Thursday, September 22, 2016

### Dense Open Clusters Have an Excess of Hot Jupiters

Authors:

Brucalassi et al

Abstract:

Since 2008 we used high-precision radial velocity (RV) measurements obtained with different telescopes to detect signatures of massive planets around main-sequence and evolved stars of the open cluster (OC) M67. We aimed to perform a long-term study on giant planet formation in open clusters and determine how this formation depends on stellar mass and chemical composition. A new hot Jupiter (HJ) around the main-sequence star YBP401 is reported in this work. An update of the RV measurements for the two HJ host-stars YBP1194 and YBP1514 is also discussed. Our sample of 66 main-sequence and turnoff stars includes 3 HJs, which indicates a high rate of HJs in this cluster (~5.6% for single stars and ~4.5% for the full sample ). This rate is much higher than what has been discovered in the field, either with RV surveys or by transits. High metallicity is not a cause for the excess of HJs in M67, nor can the excess be attributed to high stellar masses. When combining this rate with the non-zero eccentricity of the orbits, our results are qualitatively consistent with a HJ formation scenario dominated by strong encounters with other stars or binary companions and subsequent planet-planet scattering, as predicted by N-body simulations.

### HAT-P-47b AND HAT-P-48b: Two Low Density Sub-Saturn-Mass Transiting Planets on the Edge of the Period--Mass Desert

Authors:

Bakos et al

Abstract:

We report the discovery of two new transiting extrasolar planets orbiting moderately bright (V = 10.7 and 12.2 mag) F stars (masses of 1.39 Msun and 1.10 Msun, respectively). The planets have periods of P = 4.7322 d and 4.4087 d, and masses of 0.21 MJ and 0.17 MJ which are almost half-way between those of Neptune and Saturn. With radii of 1.31 RJ and 1.13 RJ, these very low density planets are the two lowest mass planets with radii in excess that of Jupiter. Comparing with other recent planet discoveries, we find that sub-Saturns (0.18MJ < Mp < 0.3MJ) and super-Neptunes (0.05MJ < Mp < 0.18MJ) exhibit a wide range of radii, and their radii exhibit a weaker correlation with irradiation than higher mass planets. The two planets are both suitable for measuring the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and for atmospheric characterization. Measuring the former effect would allow an interesting test of the theory that star-planet tidal interactions are responsible for the tendency of close-in giant planets around convective envelope stars to be on low obliquity orbits. Both planets fall on the edge of the short period Neptunian desert in the semi-major axis-mass plane.

### Transit timing variation and transmission spectroscopy analyses of the hot Neptune GJ 3470b

Transit timing variation and transmission spectroscopy analyses of the hot Neptune GJ3470b

Authors:

Awiphan et al

Abstract:

GJ3470b is a hot Neptune exoplanet orbiting an M dwarf and the first sub-Jovian planet to exhibit Rayleigh scattering. We present transit timing variation (TTV) and transmission spectroscopy analyses of multi-wavelength optical photometry from 2.4-m and 0.5-m telescopes at the Thai National Observatory, and the 0.6-m PROMPT-8 telescope in Chile. Our TTV analysis allows us to place an upper mass limit for a second planet in the system. The presence of a hot Jupiter with a period of less than 10 days or a planet with an orbital period between 2.5 and 4.0 days are excluded. Combined optical and near-infrared transmission spectroscopy favour a H/He dominated haze (mean molecular weight 1.18±0.22) with high particle abundance at high altitude. We also argue that previous near-infrared data favour the presence of methane in the atmosphere of GJ3470b.

## Wednesday, September 21, 2016

### PTFO8-8695b: the 2 Milion Year Old Hot Jupiter Already Dying (again)

Authors:

Johns-Krull et al

Abstract:

We use high time cadence, high spectral resolution optical observations to detect excess H-alpha emission from the 2 - 3 Myr old weak lined T Tauri star PTFO8-8695. This excess emission appears to move in velocity as expected if it were produced by the suspected planetary companion to this young star. The excess emission is not always present, but when it is, the predicted velocity motion is often observed. We have considered the possibility that the observed excess emission is produced by stellar activity (flares), accretion from a disk, or a planetary companion; we find the planetary companion to be the most likely explanation. If this is the case, the strength of the H-alpha line indicates that the emission comes from an extended volume around the planet, likely fed by mass loss from the planet which is expected to be overflowing its Roche lobe.

### A Cloudiness Index for Transiting hot Jupiters Based on the Sodium and Potassium Lines

Authors:

Heng et al

Abstract:

We present a dimensionless index that quantifies the degree of cloudiness of the atmosphere of a transiting exoplanet. Our cloudiness index is based on measuring the transit radii associated with the line center and wing of the sodium or potassium line. In deriving this index, we revisited the algebraic formulae for inferring the isothermal pressure scale height from transit measurements. We demonstrate that the formulae of Lecavelier et al. and Benneke & Seager are identical: the former is inferring the temperature while assuming a value for the mean molecular mass and the latter is inferring the mean molecular mass while assuming a value for the temperature. More importantly, these formulae cannot be used to distinguish between cloudy and cloudfree atmospheres. We derive values of our cloudiness index for a small sample of 7 hot Saturns/Jupiters taken from Sing et al. We show that WASP-17b, WASP-31b and HAT-P-1b are nearly cloudfree at visible wavelengths. We find the tentative trend that more irradiated atmospheres tend to have less clouds consisting of sub-micron-sized particles. We also derive absolute sodium and/or potassium abundances ∼102 cm−3 for WASP-17b, WASP-31b and HAT-P-1b (and upper limits for the other objects). Higher-resolution measurements of both the sodium and potassium lines, for a larger sample of exoplanetary atmospheres, are needed to confirm or refute this trend.

### Wide Binary Stellar Systems may be Prone to Forming hot Jupiters

Authors:

Ngo et al

Abstract:

Stellar companions can influence the formation and evolution of planetary systems, but there are currently few observational constraints on the properties of planet-hosting binary star systems. We search for stellar companions around 77 transiting hot Jupiter systems to explore the statistical properties of this population of companions as compared to field stars of similar spectral type. After correcting for survey incompleteness, we find that 47%±7% of hot Jupiter systems have stellar companions with semi-major axes between 50-2000 AU. This is 2.9 times larger than the field star companion fraction in this separation range, with a significance of 4.4σ. In the 1-50AU range, only 3.9+4.5−2.0% of hot Jupiters host stellar companions compared to the field star value of 16.4%±0.7%, which is a 2.7σ difference. We find that the distribution of mass ratios for stellar companions to hot Jupiter systems peaks at small values and therefore differs from that of field star binaries which tend to be uniformly distributed across all mass ratios. We conclude that either wide separation stellar binaries are more favorable sites for gas giant planet formation at all separations, or that the presence of stellar companions preferentially causes the inward migration of gas giant planets that formed farther out in the disk via dynamical processes such as Kozai-Lidov oscillations. We determine that less than 20% of hot Jupiters have stellar companions capable of inducing Kozai-Lidov oscillations assuming initial semi-major axes between 1-5 AU, implying that the enhanced companion occurrence is likely correlated with environments where gas giants can form efficiently.

## Tuesday, September 20, 2016

### Habitability is Potentially More Complicated Than Just the Goldilocks Zone

The search for habitable, alien worlds needs to make room for a second "Goldilocks," according to a Yale University researcher.

For decades, it has been thought that the key factor in determining whether a planet can support life was its distance from its sun. In our solar system, for instance, Venus is too close to the sun and Mars is too far, but Earth is just right. That distance is what scientists refer to as the "habitable zone," or the "Goldilocks zone."

It also was thought that planets were able to self-regulate their internal temperature via mantle convection -- the underground shifting of rocks caused by internal heating and cooling. A planet might start out too cold or too hot, but it would eventually settle into the right temperature.

A new study, appearing in the journal Science Advances on Aug. 19, suggests that simply being in the habitable zone isn't sufficient to support life. A planet also must start with an internal temperature that is just right.

"If you assemble all kinds of scientific data on how Earth has evolved in the past few billion years and try to make sense out of them, you eventually realize that mantle convection is rather indifferent to the internal temperature," said Jun Korenaga, author of the study and professor of geology and geophysics at Yale. Korenaga presents a general theoretical framework that explains the degree of self-regulation expected for mantle convection and suggests that self-regulation is unlikely for Earth-like planets.

## Monday, September 19, 2016

### SEARCHES FOR LOST STARS AND IMPOSSIBLE EFFECTS AS PROBES OF ADVANCED EXTRATERRESTRIAL CIVILIZATIONS

OUR SKY NOW AND THEN: SEARCHES FOR LOST STARS AND IMPOSSIBLE EFFECTS AS PROBES OF ADVANCED EXTRATERRESTRIAL CIVILIZATIONS

Authors:

Villarroel et al

Abstract:

Searches for extraterrestrial intelligence using large survey data often look for possible signatures of astroengineering. We propose searching for physically impossible effects caused by highly advanced technology by carrying out a search for disappearing galaxies and Milky Way stars. We select ~10 million objects from USNO-B1.0 with low proper motions (μ < 20 mas yr−1) imaged on the sky in two epochs. We search for objects not found at the expected positions in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by visually examining images of ~290,000 USNO-B1.0 objects with no counterpart in the SDSS. We identify some spurious targets in the USNO-B1.0. We find one candidate of interest for follow-up photometry, although it is very uncertain. If the candidate eventually is found, it defines the probability of observing a disappearing-object event in the last decade to less than one in one million in the given samples. Nevertheless, because the complete USNO-B1.0 data set is 100 times larger than any of our samples, we propose an easily accessible citizen science project in search of USNO-B1.0 objects that have disappeared from the SDSS.

### EPIC 204278916: A Tabby's Star Twin

Authors:

Scaringi et al

Abstract:

EPIC 204278916 has been serendipitously discovered from its K2 light curve which displays irregular dimmings of up to 65% for ~25 consecutive days out of 78.8 days of observations. For the remaining duration of the observations, the variability is highly periodic and attributed to stellar rotation. The star is a young, low-mass (M-type) pre-main-sequence star with clear evidence of a resolved tilted disk from ALMA observations. We examine the K2 light curve in detail and hypothesise that the irregular dimmings are caused by either a warped inner-disk edge or transiting cometary-like objects in either circular or eccentric orbits. The explanations discussed here are particularly relevant for other recently discovered young objects with similar absorption dips.

## Sunday, September 18, 2016

### Exoplanet Fatigue?

Oliver Morton thought that the recent Proxima Centauri exoplanet news would be bigger; he ponders why he was wrong: “It will be a long time before you see another exoplanet on a front page”.
Various people suggested to me on twitter that the public has become a little blase about exoplanets, possibly because they have been a bit oversold. (One person suggested that astronomers may have cried wolf too often, which I mention mainly in order to link to this bit of brilliance from Mitchell and Webb). With regular announcements of planets more “earthlike” than the last — but with no evidence that any of them is actually remotely like the Earth — the fact that this one was nearer than any of the others hardly seemed like that big of a step forward.

It is a real challenge in the public communication of science to explain the interesting parts of incremental progress.

### The Gaia-ESO Survey: Probes of the inner disk abundance gradient

Authors:

Jacobson et al

Abstract:

The nature of the metallicity gradient inside the solar circle (R_GC < 8 kpc) is poorly understood, but studies of Cepheids and a small sample of open clusters suggest that it steepens in the inner disk. We investigate the metallicity gradient of the inner disk using a sample of inner disk open clusters that is three times larger than has previously been studied in the literature to better characterize the gradient in this part of the disk. We used the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) [Fe/H] values and stellar parameters for stars in 12 open clusters in the inner disk from GES-UVES data. Cluster mean [Fe/H] values were determined based on a membership analysis for each cluster. Where necessary, distances and ages to clusters were determined via comparison to theoretical isochrones. The GES open clusters exhibit a radial metallicity gradient of -0.10+-0.02 dex/kpc, consistent with the gradient measured by other literature studies of field red giant stars and open clusters in the range R_GC ~ 6-12 kpc. We also measure a trend of increasing [Fe/H] with increasing cluster age, as has also been found in the literature. We find no evidence for a steepening of the inner disk metallicity gradient inside the solar circle as earlier studies indicated. The age-metallicity relation shown by the clusters is consistent with that predicted by chemical evolution models that include the effects of radial migration, but a more detailed comparison between cluster observations and models would be premature.

### Effects of disc asymmetries on astrometric measurements - Can they mimic planets?

Effects of disc asymmetries on astrometric measurements - Can they mimic planets?

Authors:

Kral et al

Abstract:

Astrometry covers a parameter space that cannot be reached by RV or transit methods to detect terrestrial planets on wide orbits. In addition, high accuracy astrometric measurements are necessary to measure the inclination of the planet's orbits. Here we investigate the principles of an artefact of the astrometric approach. Namely, the displacement of the photo-centre due to inhomogeneities in a dust disc around the parent star. Indeed, theory and observations show that circumstellar discs can present strong asymmetries. We model the pseudo-astrometric signal caused by these inhomogeneities, asking whether a dust clump in a disc can mimic the astrometric signal of an Earth-like planet. We show that these inhomogeneities cannot be neglected when using astrometry to find terrestrial planets. We provide the parameter space for which these inhomogeneities can affect the astrometric signals but still not be detected by mid-IR observations. We find that a small cross section of dust corresponding to a cometary mass object is enough to mimic the astrometric signal of an Earth-like planet. Astrometric observations of protoplanetary discs to search for planets can also be affected by the presence of inhomogeneities. Some further tests are given to confirm whether an observation is a real planet astrometric signal or an impostor. Eventually, we also study the case where the cross section of dust is high enough to provide a detectable IR-excess and to have a measurable photometric displacement by actual instruments such as Gaia, IRAC or GRAVITY. We suggest a new method, which consists in using astrometry to quantify asymmetries (clumpiness) in inner debris discs that cannot be otherwise resolved.

### Migration and Growth of Protoplanetary Embryos III: Mass and Metallicity Dependence for FGKM main-sequence stars

Authors:

Liu et al

Abstract:

Radial velocity and transit surveys have found that the fraction of FGKM stars with close-in super-Earth(s) (η⊕) is around 30%−50%, independent of the stellar mass M∗ and metallicity Z∗. In contrast, the fraction of solar-type stars harboring one or more gas giants (ηJ) with masses Mp>100 M⊕ is nearly 10%−15%, and it appears to increase with both M∗ and Z∗. Regardless of the properties of their host stars, the total mass of some multiple super-Earth systems exceeds the core mass of Jupiter and Saturn. We suggest that both super-Earths and supercritical cores of gas giants were assembled from a population of embryos that underwent convergent type I migration from their birthplaces to a transition location between viscously heated and irradiation heated disk regions. We attribute the cause for the η⊕-ηJ dichotomy to conditions required for embryos to merge and to acquire supercritical core mass (Mc∼10 M⊕) for the onset of efficient gaseous envelope accretion. We translate this condition into a critical disk accretion rate, and our analysis and simulation results show that it weakly depends on M∗ and decreases with metallicity of disk gas Zd. We find that embryos are more likely to merge into supercritical cores around relatively massive and metal-rich stars. This dependence accounts for the observed ηJ-M∗. We also consider the Zd-Z∗ dispersed relationship and reproduce the observed ηJ-Z∗ correlation.

## Saturday, September 17, 2016

### Polarimetry and flux distribution in the debris disk around HD 32297

Authors:

Asensio-Torres et al

Abstract:

We present high-contrast angular differential imaging (ADI) observations of the debris disk around HD 32297 in H-band, as well as the first polarimetric images for this system in polarized differential imaging (PDI) mode with Subaru/HICIAO. In ADI, we detect the nearly edge-on disk at >5sigma levels from ~0.45 arcsec to ~1.7 arcsec (50-192 AU) from the star and recover the spine deviation from the midplane already found in previous works. We also find for the first time imaging and surface brightness (SB) indications for the presence of a gapped structure on both sides of the disk at distances of ~0.75 arcsec (NE side) and ~0.65 arcsec (SW side). Global forward-modelling work delivers a best-fit model disk and well-fitting parameter intervals that essentially match previous results, with high-forward scattering grains and a ring located at 110 AU. However, this single ring model cannot account for the gapped structure seen in our SB profiles. We create simple double ring models and achieve a satisfactory fit with two rings located at 60 and 95 AU, respectively, low-forward scattering grains and very sharp inner slopes. In polarized light we retrieve the disk extending from ~0.25-1.6 arcsec, although the central region is quite noisy and high S/N are only found in the range ~0.75-1.2 arcsec. The disk is polarized in the azimuthal direction, as expected, and the departure from the midplane is also clearly observed. Evidence for a gapped scenario is not found in the PDI data. We obtain a linear polarization degree of the grains that increases from ~10% at 0.55 arcsec to ~25% at 1.6 arcsec. The maximum is found at scattering angles of ~90degrees, either from the main components of the disk or from dust grains blown out to larger radii.

### Dippers and Dusty Disks Edges: A Unified Model

Dippers and Dusty Disks Edges: A Unified Model

Authors:

Bodman et al

Abstract:

A search for dips in observed stellar flux in the Upper Scorpius and ρ Ophiuchus star formation regions with the Kepler mission by Ansdell et al. primarily identified young, low mass stars (dippers) with low accretion rates and hosting moderately evolved dusty circumstellar disks. These young stars likely exhibit rotating star spots that cause quasi-periodic photometric variations. However, a separate period associated with the dips is not evident in spectrograms constructed from the light curves. The material causing the dips in most of these light curves must be approximately corotating with the star. We find that disk temperatures computed at the disk corotation radius are cool enough that dust should not sublimate. Dippers are preferentially associated with young, low mass stars as they have low enough luminosities to allow dust to survive within a few stellar radii. Crude estimates for stellar magnetic field strengths and accretion rates are consistent with magnetospheric truncation near the corotation radius. Magnetospheric truncation models can explain why dusty material is lifted out of the midplane to obscure the star causing the light curve dips and why so many young low mass stars are dippers. We propose that variations in disk orientation angle, stellar magnetic field dipole tilt axis, and disk accretion rate are underlying parameters accounting for differences in the dipper light curves.

### A self-consistent model for the evolution of the gas produced in the debris disc of β Pictoris

Authors:

Kral et al

Abstract:

This paper presents a self-consistent model for the evolution of gas produced in the debris disc of β Pictoris. Our model proposes that atomic carbon and oxygen are created from the photodissociation of CO, which is itself released from volatile-rich bodies in the debris disc due to grain-grain collisions or photodesorption. While the CO lasts less than one orbit, the atomic gas evolves by viscous spreading resulting in an accretion disc inside the parent belt and a decretion disc outside. The temperature, ionisation fraction and population levels of carbon and oxygen are followed with the photodissociation region model Cloudy, which is coupled to a dynamical viscous α model. We present new gas observations of β Pic, of C I observed with APEX and O I observed with Herschel, and show that these along with published C II and CO observations can all be explained with this new model. Our model requires a viscosity α > 0.1, similar to that found in sufficiently ionised discs of other astronomical objects; we propose that the magnetorotational instability is at play in this highly ionised and dilute medium. This new model can be tested from its predictions for high resolution ALMA observations of C I. We also constrain the water content of the planetesimals in β Pic. The scenario proposed here might be at play in all debris discs and this model could be used more generally on all discs with C, O or CO detections.

## Friday, September 16, 2016

### A self-similar solution for thermal disk winds

Authors:

Clarke et al

Abstract:

We derive a self-similar description for the 2D streamline topology and flow structure of an axi-symmetric, thermally driven wind originating from a disc in which the density is a power law function of radius. Our scale-free solution is strictly only valid in the absence of gravity or centrifugal support; comparison with 2D hydrodynamic simulations of winds from Keplerian discs however demonstrates that the scale-free solution is a good approximation also in the outer regions of such discs, and can provide a reasonable description even for launch radii well within the gravitational radius of the flow. Although other authors have considered the flow properties along streamlines whose geometry has been specified in advance, this is the first isothermal calculation in which the flow geometry and variation of flow variables along streamlines is determined self-consistently. It is found that the flow trajectory is very sensitive to the power-law index of radial density variation in the disc: the steeper the density gradient, the stronger is the curvature of streamlines close to the flow base that is required in order to maintain momentum balance perpendicular to the flow. Steeper disc density profiles are also associated with more rapid acceleration, and a faster fall-off of density, with height above the disc plane. The derivation of a set of simple governing equations for the flow structure of thermal winds from the outer regions of power law discs offers the possibility of deriving flow observables without having to resort to hydrodynamical simulation.

### Blueshifted [OI] lines from protoplanetary discs: the smoking gun of X-ray photoevaporation

Blueshifted [OI] lines from protoplanetary discs: the smoking gun of X-ray photoevaporation

Authors:

Ercolano et al

Abstract:

Photoevaporation of protoplanetary discs by high energy radiation from the central young stellar object is currently the favourite model to explain the sudden dispersal of discs from the inside out. While several theoretical works have provided a detailed pictured of this process, the direct observational validation is still lacking. Emission lines produced in these slow moving protoplanetary disc winds may bear the imprint of the wind structure and thus provide a potential diagnostic of the underlying dispersal process. In this paper we primarily focus on the collisionally excited neutral oxygen line at 6300A. We compare our models predictions to observational data and demonstrate a thermal origin for the observed blueshifted low-velocity component of this line from protoplanetary discs. Furthermore our models show that while this line is a clear tell-tale-sign of a warm, quasi-neutral disc wind, typical of X-ray photoevaporation, its strong temperature dependence makes it unsuitable to measure detailed wind quantities like mass-loss-rate.

### Are intermediate range periodicities in sunspot area associated with planetary motion?

Author:

Edmonds

Abstract:

Rieger quasi-periodicities have been reported numerous times. However, no accepted explanation of the quasi-periodicities has emerged. We examine the possibility that the some of the reported periodicities are associated with a Mercury to Sun interaction of base period 88 days. To test this idea we filter the daily sunspot area record with band pass filters centred on the 88 day period and 176 day sub harmonic period of Mercury. We observed that the time variation of the amplitude of the components was comprised of episodes that varied in duration from 1.5 to 4 years, with successive episodes usually overlapping in time but, for significant intervals in the record, the episodes were discrete, i.e. not overlapping. The time variation of the filtered components was compared with the time variation of the tidal effect of Mercury. We were able to show that when episodes were discrete the time variation of the component of sunspot area during the episode was either in-phase or in anti-phase with the tidal effect. We interpret this result as an indication of a connection between planetary motion and sunspot emergence. When several discrete episodes of the 88 day or the 176 day period components occurred during a solar cycle the spectrum of sunspot area exhibited periodicities at sidebands to the 88 day or 176 day periods with the periodicity of the sidebands dependent on the duration of the episodes. A model based on amplitude modulation of 88 day and 176 day period sinusoids was able to consistently reproduce periodicities observed in the spectra of sunspot area. It is proposed that the observed connection between planetary motion and sunspot emergence involves magnetic Rossby waves with mode periods close to the sub harmonic periods associated with Mercury and the triggering of sunspot emergence by those Rossby waves.

## Thursday, September 15, 2016

### Hunting for hot Jupiters in Young Stellar Associations

Authors:

Oelkers et al

Abstract:

The past two decades have seen a significant advancement in the detection, classification and understanding of exoplanets and binaries. This is due, in large part, to the increase in use of small-aperture telescopes (< 20 cm) to survey large areas of the sky to milli-mag precision with rapid cadence. The vast majority of the planetary and binary systems studied to date consist of main-sequence or evolved objects, leading to a dearth of knowledge of properties at early times (< 50 Myr). Only a dozen binaries and one candidate transiting Hot Jupiter are known among pre-main sequence objects, yet these are the systems that can provide the best constraints on stellar formation and planetary migration models. The deficiency in the number of well-characterized systems is driven by the inherent and aperiodic variability found in pre-main-sequence objects, which can mask and mimic eclipse signals. Hence, a dramatic increase in the number of young systems with high-quality observations is highly desirable to guide further theoretical developments. We have recently completed a photometric survey of 3 nearby (< 150 pc) and young (< 50 Myr) moving groups with a small aperture telescope. While our survey reached the requisite photometric precision, the temporal coverage was insufficient to detect Hot Jupiters. Nevertheless, we discovered 346 pre-main-sequence binary candidates, including 74 high-priority objects for further study.

### K2 Campaigns 5 & 6 Have IDed 152 Exoplanet Candidates

Authors:

Pope et al

Abstract:

We introduce a new transit search and vetting pipeline for observations from the K2 mission, and present the candidate transiting planets identified by this pipeline out of the targets in Campaigns 5 and 6. Our pipeline uses the Gaussian Process-based K2SC code to correct for the K2 pointing systematics and simultaneously model stellar variability. The systematics-corrected, variability-detrended light curves are searched for transits with the Box Least Squares method, and a period-dependent detection threshold is used to generate a preliminary candidate list. Two or three individuals vet each candidate manually to produce the final candidate list, using a set of automatically-generated transit fits and assorted diagnostic tests to inform the vetting. We detect 147 single-planet system candidates and 5 multi-planet systems, independently recovering the previously-published hot~Jupiters EPIC 212110888b, WASP-55b (EPIC 212300977b) and Qatar-2b (EPIC 212756297b). We also report the outcome of reconnaissance spectroscopy carried out for all candidates with Kepler magnitude Kp less than 13, identifying 12 targets as likely false positives. We compare our results to those of other K2 transit search pipelines, noting that ours performs particularly well for variable and/or active stars, but that the results are very similar overall. All the light curves and code used in the transit search and vetting process are publicly available, as are the follow-up spectra.

### On turbulence driven by axial precession and tidal evolution of the spin-orbit angle of hot Jupiters

On turbulence driven by axial precession and tidal evolution of the spin-orbit angle of close-in giant planets

Authors:

Barker et al

Abstract:

The spin axis of a rotationally deformed planet is forced to precess about its orbital angular momentum vector, due to the tidal gravity of its host star, if these directions are misaligned. This induces internal fluid motions inside the planet that are subject to a hydrodynamic instability. We study the turbulent damping of precessional fluid motions, as a result of this instability, in the simplest local computational model of a giant planet (or star), with and without a weak internal magnetic field. Our aim is to determine the outcome of this instability, and its importance in driving tidal evolution of the spin-orbit angle in precessing planets (and stars). We find that this instability produces turbulent dissipation that is sufficiently strong that it could drive significant tidal evolution of the spin-orbit angle for hot Jupiters with orbital periods shorter than about 10-18 days. If this mechanism acts in isolation, this evolution would be towards alignment or anti-alignment, depending on the initial angle, but the ultimate evolution (if other tidal mechanisms also contribute) is expected to be towards alignment. The turbulent dissipation is proportional to the cube of the precession frequency, so it leads to much slower damping of stellar spin-orbit angles, implying that this instability is unlikely to drive evolution of the spin-orbit angle in stars (either in planetary or close binary systems). We also find that the instability-driven flow can act as a system-scale dynamo, which may play a role in producing magnetic fields in short-period planets.

## Wednesday, September 14, 2016

### Sorting Through Radial Velocity Noise to Detect Exoplanets Around M Dwarfs

Authors:

Feng et al

Abstract:

The doppler measurements of stars are diluted and distorted by stellar activity noise. Different choices of noise models and statistical methods have led to much controversy in the confirmation of exoplanet candidates obtained through analysing radial velocity data. To quantify the limitation of various models and methods, we compare different noise models and signal detection criteria for various simulated and real data sets in the Bayesian framework. According to our analyses, the white noise model tend to interpret noise as signal, leading to false positives. On the other hand, the red noise models are likely to interprete signal as noise, resulting in false negatives. We find that the Bayesian information criterion combined with a Bayes factor threshold of 150 can efficiently rule out false positives and confirm true detections. We further propose a Goldilocks principle aimed at modeling radial velocity noise to avoid too many false positives and too many false negatives. We propose that the noise model with RHK-dependent jitter is used in combination with the moving average model to detect planetary signals for M dwarfs. Our work may also shed light on the noise modeling for hotter stars, and provide a valid approach for finding similar principles in other disciplines.

### Evidence q1 Eridani has a Solar System like Exoplanet Layout

Authors:

Schüppler et al

Abstract:

Many debris discs reveal a two-component structure, with an outer Kuiper-belt analogue and a warm inner component whose origin is still a matter of debate. One possibility is that warm emission stems from an “asteroid belt” closer in to the star. We consider a scenario in which a set of giant planets is formed in an initially extended planetesimal disc. These planets carve a broad gap around their orbits, splitting up the disc into the outer and the inner belts. After the gas dispersal, both belts undergo collisional evolution in a steady-state regime. This scenario is explored with detailed collisional simulations involving realistic physics to describe a long-term collisional depletion of the two-component disc. We find that the inner disc may be able to retain larger amounts of material at older ages than thought before on the basis of simplified analytic models. We show that the proposed scenario is consistent with a suite of thermal emission and scattered light observational data for a bright two-temperature debris disc around a nearby solar-type star q1 Eridani. This implies a Solar System-like architecture of the system, with an outer massive “Kuiper belt”, an inner “asteroid belt”, and a few Neptune- to Jupiter-mass planets in between.

### Circumplanetary disc or circumplanetary envelope?

Authors:

Szulágyi et al

Abstract:

We present three-dimensional simulations with nested meshes of the dynamics of the gas around a Jupiter mass planet with the jupiter and fargoca codes. We implemented a radiative transfer module into the jupiter code to account for realistic heating and cooling of the gas. We focus on the circumplanetary gas flow, determining its characteristics at very high resolution (80 per cent of Jupiter's diameter). In our nominal simulation where the temperature evolves freely by the radiative module and reaches 13000 K at the planet, a circumplanetary envelope was formed filling the entire Roche lobe. Because of our equation of state is simplified and probably overestimates the temperature, we also performed simulations with limited maximal temperatures in the planet region (1000, 1500, and 2000 K). In these fixed temperature cases circumplanetary discs (CPDs) were formed. This suggests that the capability to form a CPD is not simply linked to the mass of the planet and its ability to open a gap. Instead, the gas temperature at the planet's location, which depends on its accretion history, plays also fundamental role. The CPDs in the simulations are hot and cooling very slowly, they have very steep temperature and density profiles, and are strongly sub-Keplerian. Moreover, the CPDs are fed by a strong vertical influx, which shocks on the CPD surfaces creating a hot and luminous shock-front. In contrast, the pressure supported circumplanetary envelope is characterized by internal convection and almost stalled rotation.

## Tuesday, September 13, 2016

### EPIC 210363145b: A "Super-Earth" Orbiting a Young K Dwarf in the Pleiades Neighborhood

Authors:

Gaidos et al

Abstract:

We describe a "super-Earth"-size (2.30±0.15R⊕) planet transiting an early K-type dwarf star in the Campaign 4 field observed by the K2 mission. The host star, EPIC 210363145, was identified as a member of the approximately 120-Myr-old Pleiades cluster based on its kinematics and photometric distance. It is rotationally variable and exhibits near-ultraviolet emission consistent with a Pleiades age, but its rotational period is ~20 d and its spectrum contains no Hα emission nor the Li I absorption expected of Pleiades K dwarfs. Instead, the star is probably an interloper that is unaffiliated with the cluster, but younger (< 1 Gyr) than the typical field dwarf. We ruled out a false positive transit signal produced by confusion with a background eclipsing binary by adaptive optics imaging and a statistical calculation. Doppler radial velocity measurements limit the companion mass to

### On the Detection of Non-Transiting Exoplanets with Dusty Tails

On the Detection of Non-Transiting Exoplanets with Dusty Tails

Authors:

DeVore et al

Abstract:

We present a way of searching for non-transiting exoplanets with dusty tails. In the transiting case, the extinction by dust during the transit removes more light from the beam than is scattered into it. Thus, the forward scattering component of the light is best seen either just prior to ingress, or just after egress, but with reduced amplitude over the larger peak that is obscured by the transit. This picture suggests that it should be equally productive to search for positive-going peaks in the flux from non-transiting exoplanets with dusty tails. We discuss what amplitudes are expected for different orbital inclination angles. The signature of such objects should be distinct from normal transits, starspots, and most - but not all - types of stellar pulsations.